Call for Abstract
51st International Congress on Nursing Care, will be organized around the theme “Novel Advancements in Nursing Care and Research”
Nursing Care 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Nursing Care 2020
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks.
Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.
Nursing education focuses on educating health care people about effective ways to deliver the health care to patients. It educates nurses regarding the way to administer totally different medicines, to examine patient and to deliver best services to patients. The aim of nursing education could be a development of the nursing profession.
Nursing Education, Health Care, Nursing Research, etc., it is a world-wide dais that combines different spheres, kindle the exchange of ideas and enable participants to grasp the latest developments and ideas in different areas of Nursing Education. It will serve as a great platform to improve your knowledge and skills in this field through the various research experience and presentations. It also helps gaining a view about the career development and job search.
- Track 1-1Health Care
- Track 1-2Cancer and Tumor Nursing
- Track 1-3Pediatric Nursing
- Track 1-4Women Health Nursing
- Track 1-5Mental Health Nursing
- Track 1-6Clinical Nursing
- Track 1-7Veterinary Nursing
- Track 1-8Travel Nurse
- Track 1-9Telemedicine and e-Health
- Track 1-10Transitional Care Nursing
- Track 1-11Dental Nursing
- Track 1-12Surgical Nursing
- Track 1-13Innovations in Nursing Education
- Track 1-14New Technology in Nursing Education
- Track 1-15International Nursing Education
- Track 1-16Nurse Practitioner
- Track 1-17Types of Nursing Education
- Track 1-18Nursing Credentials and Certifications
- Track 1-19Nursing Management
- Track 1-20Nursing Law
- Track 1-21Nursing Informatics
- Track 1-22Ethics and Psychology in Reproductive Medicine
Nursing Informatics is that the specialty that integrates nursing science with multiple info management and analytical sciences to spot, define, manage, and communicate knowledge, info, knowledge, and knowledge in nursing follow.
Nursing Informatics and Technology aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Nursing Informatics and Technology.
It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Nursing Informatics and Technology
- Track 2-1Capacity building in poor resource settings
- Track 2-2Technology adoption/acceptance
- Track 2-3System usability/computer-human interaction
- Track 2-4System implementation
- Track 2-5Practice-based knowledge generation
- Track 2-6Personal health information management tools
- Track 2-7Patient safety
- Track 2-8Nursing knowledge representation
- Track 2-9Nursing documentation systems
- Track 2-10mHealth
- Track 2-11Healthcare workflow and process efficiency
- Track 2-12Global health
- Track 2-13Data exchange standards
- Track 2-14Clinical decision support
- Track 2-15Care coordination and communication
- Track 2-16Telehealth including distance education
Oncology nurses look after individuals of all ages who area unit diagnosed with cancer. Oncology may be a difficult field within which nurses support patients, families, and caregivers through the strain of designation and treatment, and therefore the anxiety of the many uncertainties brought on by the disease, including facing mortality.
Oncology Nursing is a field involving practice encompasses the roles of direct caregiver, educator, consultant, administrator, and researcher.
Oncology and cancer nursing extends to all care delivery settings where clients experiencing or at risk for developing cancer receive health care, education, and counselling for cancer prevention, screening and detection. An oncology nurse is a nursing professional who specializes in caring for people with cancer. Oncology nurses often serve as your first line of communication, and help coordinate the many aspects of your care throughout cancer treatment.
- Track 3-1Role of Nurses in Cancer Care
- Track 3-2Oncology Nursing and Care
- Track 3-3Complementary & Alternative Methods and Cancer
- Track 3-4Cancer Prevention & Research
- Track 3-5Cancer: Lifestyle Connection and Nutrition
- Track 3-6Tumor Virology, Immunology & Cellular Pathology
- Track 3-7Cancer Metabolomics
- Track 3-8Neonatal & Pediatric Oncology
- Track 3-9Cancer: Psychological & Social Aspects
- Track 3-10Cancer Awareness and Survival
- Track 3-11Cancer Biopsy
- Track 3-12Cancer Immunology & Immunotherapy
- Track 3-13Cancer Therapy & Treatments
- Track 3-14Cancer Epidemiology
- Track 3-15Cancer Cell Biology & Genetics
- Track 3-16Cancer & Stem Cell Therapy
- Track 3-17Organ-Defined Cancers
- Track 3-18Cancer Biomarkers
- Track 3-19Cancer Vaccines
- Track 3-20Cancer Nanotechnology
- Track 3-21Cancer Pharmacology
- Track 3-22Cancer Chemotherapy
- Track 3-23Oncology: Sub-Specialities
- Track 3-24Precision Cancer Medicine & Oncology
- Track 3-25Cancer Metastasis
Community Health at Home provides treatment and assistance to patients who are recuperating, chronically ill, or disabled - in the comfort of their own home. Our home care services embody specialty programs, interference and health maintenance on a short and long-run basis, and a good array of services from high-technology nursing to basic home health aide care.
Community and Home Health Nursing is an emerging platform for outstanding research work to bask in the global spotlight and it aspires to bring about revolutionary changes in the field of Public Health by sharing of ideas, knowledge, practical on field experience, entrepreneurial opportunities and exclusive research work to benefit the global Public Health standards by inclusion of Community Nursing practices to tackle Public Health issues.
- Track 4-1Childhood Obesity
- Track 4-2Prevention of STDs
- Track 4-3Delivery of Community-Based Care through Inter-professional Teams
- Track 4-4PHN Competencies
- Track 4-5Community Nursing Roles
- Track 4-6Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
- Track 4-7Innovations and Development in Nursing
- Track 4-8Regulatory Science
Nursing and health care deals with varied aspects of patient care. The role of nursing in impartation quality medical treatment to sickly patients cannot be undermined. On the opposite hand public health care nurses specialise in adopting and educating lots on the varied necessary health aspects viz. personal and community hygiene, vaccination programs and alternative population specific treatment practices, for the good thing about a complete population. Hence, research and development of contemporary nursing and healthcare practices will help in uplifting the health status of a person, family as well as a specified population.
Nursing and health care brings together individuals who have an interest in different fields of nursing like psychiatric, cancer, cardiac, critical care, adult & women health, legal, pediatric and emergency nursing, midwifery, public health, healthcare and medicine from practice, research, administration, policy and education. It is a forum to explore issues of mutual concern as well as exchange knowledge, share evidence and ideas, and generate solutions.
- Track 5-1Effective Nursing Teaching Strategies
- Track 5-2Epidemiology & Public health
- Track 5-3Primary healthcare
- Track 5-4Nursing safety
- Track 5-5Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (aprn)
- Track 5-6Wound Care Nursing
- Track 5-7Public Health Nursing
- Track 5-8Healthcare & Hospital Management
- Track 5-9Standards of Nursing
- Track 5-10Forensic Nursing Science
- Track 5-11Midwifery Nursing
- Track 5-12Professional Nursing Skills
- Track 5-13Advanced Nursing Practice
- Track 5-14Nephrology Nursing
- Track 5-15Continuing Nursing Education Updates
- Track 5-16Risk Factors in Nursing and Healthcare Professionals
- Track 5-17Patient Safety & Health Care
- Track 5-18International Nursing Education
- Track 5-19Telemedicine And E-Health
- Track 5-20Technologies in Nursing
- Track 5-21Nursing Leadership
- Track 5-22Nursing Practice
A Public Health Nurse may be a nursing skilled agency works in an exceedingly public position. Their overall focus is on raising the final health of the population among a section or facility.
A Public Health Nursing session is an opportunity to meet others within specialty to network and to learn the latest clinical information. It is an opportunity no nurse should overlook. I’ve always embraced the opportunity to attend nursing conferences and have made a point to encourage others to attend whenever the opportunity arises.
Public Health Nursing allow nurses of all levels of experience to participate in an area of career and education growth that is not easily found within the structure of the workplace. Some nurses, especially those working at the bedside, may not see the significance of attending a conference. All too often the floor/ bedside nurse believes that conferences are only for management, while others may think that spending one or more days not earning a pay check may not outweigh the opportunity to clock in some additional overtime. There may be a whole host of other reasons why a nurse would prefer to remain home rather than attending a conference. Despite the plentiful excuses (the top two being cost and time), the benefits far outweigh the costs.
- Track 6-1Primary Healthcare
- Track 6-2Psychiatric & Dental Nursing
- Track 6-3e-Medicine & Tele Health Nursing
- Track 6-4Clinical, Critical Care & Emergency Nursing
- Track 6-5Oncology Nursing and Cancer Care
- Track 6-6Innovations and Developments in Nursing
- Track 6-7Public Health
- Track 6-8Epidemiology
- Track 6-9Midwifery and Women’s Health
- Track 6-10Social Determinants of Health
- Track 6-11Maternal Infant and Child Health
- Track 6-12Pediatric & Cardiovascular Nursing
- Track 6-13Epidemiology & Dermatology Nursing
- Track 6-14Nursing Education
- Track 6-15Nursing Care in Public Health
- Track 6-16Nursing Types & Nursing Management
- Track 6-17Community Nursing
- Track 6-18Family Nursing
- Track 6-19Rural Health & Legal Nursing
- Track 6-20Transcultural & Occupational Health Nursing
- Track 6-21Gerontology Nursing
- Track 6-22Reproductive Health Nursing
- Track 6-23Surgical &Wound Care Nursing
- Track 6-24Preventive and Personalized Medicine
Holistic nursing is usually outlined as all nursing follow that has healing the complete person as its goal. A holistic nurse may be a commissioned nurse UN agency takes a “mind-body-spirit-emotion-environment” approach to the follow of ancient nursing.
Holistic Nurse Practitioner involves of the theoretical and practical training provided to nurses with the purpose to prepare them for their duties as nursing care professionals. This education is provided to nursing students by experienced nurses and other medical professionals who have qualified or experienced for educational tasks. Most countries offer Holistic Nurse Practitioner courses that can be relevant to general nursing or to specialized areas including mental health nursing, Pediatric nursing and post-operatory nursing. Nursing Practice also provides post-qualification courses in specialist subjects within nursing.
Holistic Nursing session brings all the individuals at the same time who have interest in various fields of nursing like psychiatric, cancer, cardiac, critical care, adult & women health, legal, pediatric and emergency nursing, midwifery, public health, healthcare and medicine from practice, research, administration, policy and education. It is a gathering to impart education, personalize, integrative and technology-enabled teaching that will lead to ethical and culturally inclusive base for practice, ensuring team and communication skills, quality and system improvements, and lifelong learning.
- Track 7-1Cardiac Nursing
- Track 7-2Health Conception in Nursing
- Track 7-3Management Skills in Nursing
- Track 7-4Management Skills in Nursing
- Track 7-5Disaster and Travel Nursing
- Track 7-6Nursing of Women Health and Midwifery
- Track 7-7Education and Research in Nursing
- Track 7-8Orthopaedic Nursing
- Track 7-9Gerontological Nursing
- Track 7-10Oncology Nursing
- Track 7-11Pediatric Nursing
- Track 7-12Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing
- Track 7-13Telenursing
- Track 7-14Rehabilitation Nursing
- Track 7-15Nursing in Health Care
- Track 7-16Advanced Health Care Transformation
Midwifery and Women's Health session presents new research and current knowledge across a broad range of clinical and interdisciplinary topics including maternity care, gynaecology, primary care for women and new-borns, public health, health care policy, and global health. With a focus on evidence-based practice, Nursing Care 2020 is dedicated to improving the health care of women throughout their lifespan and promoting excellence in midwifery.
Midwifery and Women's Health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the new-born), besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. Midwifery is a distinct profession from nursing, although there is a shortened training route for registered adult nurses. Midwives are involved during all stages of a woman’s pregnancy, labour and early postnatal period. Midwives are qualified to assist with a normal vaginal delivery while more complicated deliveries are handled by a health care provider who has had further training.
- Track 8-1Healthy Living
- Track 8-2Midwifery
- Track 8-3Womens Health
- Track 8-4Neonatology
- Track 8-5Pediatrics
- Track 8-6Maternal and Child Health
- Track 8-7Women Oncology
- Track 8-8Breast Diseases
- Track 8-9Uterine Diseases
- Track 8-10Women Reproductive Cancer
- Track 8-11Midwifery Nursing Practice
- Track 8-12Reproductive Endocrinology
- Track 8-13Traditional Midwifery
- Track 8-14Breastfeeding
- Track 8-15Newborn
- Track 8-16Midwifery Practice and Education
- Track 8-17Infections
- Track 8-18Gynecology & Obstetrics
- Track 8-19Contraception and Family Planning
- Track 8-20Mental Health
- Track 8-21Nutrition, Diet, and Weight
- Track 8-22Reproductive and Sexual Health
- Track 8-23Unplanned Pregnancy
- Track 8-24Pregnancy
- Track 8-25Labor and Birth
- Track 8-26Postpartum
- Track 8-27Ethical, Social and Legal Issues
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nurse (OB GYN) A career in obstetrics and gynaecology nursing can be exciting and rewarding. Obstetrics and medical specialty nurses also are referred to as OB nurses, OB GYNs, and perinatal nurses. These professionals work with ladies throughout physiological condition, labor, and parturition, and supply postnatal care.
The Gynaecology and Obstetrics Nursing has been carefully designed so as to acknowledge the various recent researches going on in the field of gynaecology and obstetrics. In addition to the paper presentations, the conference will provide its attendees to attend sessions of presentations and debates, workshops and symposiums as well as poster presentations. This session on Gynaecology will deal with various tracks from the different fields of Reproductive Health & Women health. The congress provides you with a unique opportunity to meet up with peers from both industry and academia. We co-cordially invite all concerned people to come and join us at our event and make it a successful one by your esteem participation.
A vast array of topics will be discusses in the session which includes Pre & Post-Partum Care, Gynecologic Oncology, Urogynecology, Contraception, Donor Conception, Ethics & Psychology in reproductive medicine, Reproductive Endocrinology and Medicine, Cervical Cancer, Latest Innovation in Gynecological Pathology and Breast Disease & Management. At Conference series, it is our ideology to bring maximum exposure to our attendees, so we make sure the event is a blend which covers professionals such as gynecologists, obstetricians, midwifes, nurses, pathologists, veteran researchers, women healthcare professionals from academia & industry making the conference an enriching valley of information and experience.
- Track 9-1Maternal Healthcare
- Track 9-2Health-Related Behaviours in Women
- Track 9-3Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
- Track 9-4Gynecologic Surgery
- Track 9-5Clinical Gynecology Oncology
- Track 9-6Gynecology Disorders
- Track 9-7Adolescent Gynecology
- Track 9-8Gynecologic Cancers: Case Report
- Track 9-9Advances in Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Track 9-10Women Reproductive Cancers
- Track 9-11Infertility
- Track 9-12Menopause
- Track 9-13Family Planning
- Track 9-14Gynecology & Obstetrics
- Track 9-15Midwifery
- Track 9-16Maternal-Fetal Medicine
- Track 9-17Urogynecology
- Track 9-18Gynecological Endocrinology
- Track 9-19Donor Conception
- Track 9-20Gynecological Oncology
- Track 9-21Reproductive Medicine
- Track 9-22Prenatal Diagnosis
- Track 9-23Medicated Intrauterine Devices
Family health Nursing is that the follow of nursing directed towards increasing the health and wellbeing of all people among in a very family system. The goals of the family health nursing embrace optimum functioning for the individual and for the family as a unit.
Family Nursing will focus on engaging nurses and interdisciplinary colleagues in discussion of social determinants of health facing families worldwide. With an emphasis on understanding how families impact and are impacted by social determinants, the conference will focus on promoting community-engaged learning/collaboration among researchers, clinicians, educators, and community stakeholders to expand the capacity of family nurses for improving family health and well-being.
- Track 10-1Nursing Education Research
- Track 10-2Legal Nursing and Practitioner
- Track 10-3Health care and Management
- Track 10-4Geriatric Nursing
- Track 10-5Cardiac Nursing
- Track 10-6Pediatric Nursing
- Track 10-7Psychiatric and Mental Health
- Track 10-8Critical Care Emergency Nursing
- Track 10-9Midwifery and Women Health Nursing
- Track 10-10Quality Healthcare
- Track 10-11Healthcare
- Track 10-12Public Health
- Track 10-13Clinical Nursing
- Track 10-14Nursing Practice
- Track 10-15Family Medicine
- Track 10-16Risk Factors in Nursing and Healthcare professionals
Nursing science is that the development of theories and sensible ideas for rising however clinicians and patients administer care and manages conditions.
Today, nursing science contributes to the analysis and discovery of innovative approaches that improve health outcomes.
It is an extraordinary session designed for professionals to facilitate the dissemination and application of research findings on Nursing. The conference invites Nursing Professionals, Doctors, Nursing students and participants from leading Universities of nursing, clinical research institutions and diagnostic companies to share their research experiences on all aspects of this rapidly expanding field and advancements in the field of Nursing.
Nursing Advancements with all includes rehabilitation is a comprehensive exercise, inculcation, and behavioural modification program designed to amend the physical and emotional condition of all patients. One way to avert the illness is to manage the conditions that cause diseases, such as heart disease, lung disease, cancer, women health issues, blood disorders, infectious diseases etc. Organized interventions to improve health based on the principles and procedures developed through the health sciences are provided mainly by trained nurses. Primary health care that includes preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services delivered in a coordinated manner by members of the health care team. Removing barriers and restrictions that prevent Registered Nurse (RNs) and Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) from contributing fully to patient care in all communities. So now a days survival rates have incremented and complication rates have decremented due to better immunosuppressive agents, amelioration in organ procurement and surgical techniques and overall increase in experience for performing clinically. Nurse practitioners help in outstanding services like promoting, protecting and stabilizing the health and abilities of the patients. It is one of the healthcare sector which means caring the individuals. Nursing professionals comforts patients in their recovery of their health issues.
- Track 11-1Telehealth and Telenursing
- Track 11-2Patient Identification Technology
- Track 11-3Enhanced Communication
- Track 11-4Electronic Records
- Track 11-5GPS tracking
- Track 11-6Lifting Patients with Ease
- Track 11-7Smarter Alarm Systems
- Track 11-8Drug Delivery
- Track 11-9Enhanced Diagnostic Devices
- Track 11-10Photovoice
- Track 11-11Nursing Informatics
- Track 11-12Smart Beds
There are many reasons steered for occasional rates of nursing by males: stereotypes of nursing, lack of male interest within the profession, low pay, nursing job titles like Sister and Matron, and therefore the perception that male nurses can have issue within the work finishing up their duties.
Nursing is a profession dominated by female, only 5% in nursing profession are males. Nursing scope is increasing rapidly as it forms the backbone of healthcare system. There are 2.7 million registered nurses and over 750,000 licensed practical nurses working in the system.
According to research Male registered nurses (RNs) mostly considers field of administration, emergency or critical care then general medical, outpatient, or obstetrical nursing. Among 3.5 million employed nurses about 3.2 comprises of female and 330,000 males. Among which 78% are registered nurse , Men representation in nursing has significantly increased from 2.7 % in 1970 to 9.6% in 2011. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses of around 19% , 3 percent were nurse practitioners, and 1 percent were nurse anesthetists.
In every part of the world today, more men are enrolling themselves in the field of nursing and there is a major push to delete the stereotype that nurses are women. In fact, men are finding roles in all fields of nursing. Nursing is a not a gender, it is a profession. The act and art of caring is something not only women understand, but men feel as well. With the extreme shortage of nurses all over the world, more men are encouraged to join the profession. Men nurses can build up a strong relationship among his clients or patients and as well as perform the task which requires physical power more efficiently.
- Track 12-1Survey of Men in Nursing
- Track 12-2Male Nurses Break Through Barriers to Diversify Profession
- Track 12-3Gain Cultural Competence, Knowledge and Skills
- Track 12-4Reasons to Pursue a Career as a Family Nurse Practitioner
- Track 12-5The Nursing Organization of Veteran Affairs
- Track 12-6Featured Stories about Men in Nursing
- Track 12-7National Student Nurses Association
Nursing analysis is analysis that gives proof wont to support nursing practices. Nursing, as associate degree evidence-based space of apply, has been developing since the time of Florence Nightingale to the current day, wherever several nurses currently work as researchers primarily based in universities as well as in the health care setting.
Advanced Nursing Research aims to discover advances in health practice opportunities and challenges for the nursing community, management and education in relation to health disparities as well as a breadth of other topics. According to the reports, total health care spending in Ireland in 2013 was €18.4 billion or 12.4% of Gross National Income (GNI). In November 2015, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reported in its “Health at a Glance 2015” annual data that spending on health in the US consumed 16.4% of GDP in US, followed by the Netherlands at 11.1%, an OECD average of 8.9% and an Irish ratio of 8.1% in 2012 while in the rate in UK in 2013 was 8.6%. Ireland spent 7.6 % on health, slightly higher than the EU average of 7.2%. In 2014, the expenditure on healthcare increased to 19.1 billion euro.
- Track 13-1Nursing Research
- Track 13-2Men in Nursing
- Track 13-3Geriatric and Palliative Nursing
- Track 13-4Geriatric and Palliative Nursing
- Track 13-5Midwifery Nursing
- Track 13-6Cancer Nursing
- Track 13-7Mental Health Nursing
- Track 13-8Reproductive Nursing
- Track 13-9Emergency Nursing
- Track 13-10Surgical Nursing
- Track 13-11Public Health Nursing
- Track 13-12Evidence Based Nursing (EBN)
- Track 13-13Nursing Practice
Qualitative Research In Nursing refers to a way of inquiry within which the research worker, acting as knowledge assortment instrument, seeks to answer questions about however or why a selected development happens.
Qualitative Research In Nursing refers to any analysis supported one thing that is not possible to accurately or exactly live. However, it permits the researchers to explore human experiences in personal contexts and additionally social contexts, and gain a larger understanding of the factors influencing these experiences. Analysis of this sort will facilitate nurses to know health and sickness experiences and provide compassionate, person-centered care.
Qualitative Research In Nursing may be referred to as an associate degree inquiry. It refers to associate degree analysis which will be accurately and exactly measured by an instrument. Instruments area unit employed in quantitative analysis facilitates to convert info into numbers. Instrument studies solely quantitative ideas.
- Track 14-1Exploratory Studies
- Track 14-2Descriptive Studies
- Track 14-3Clinical Trials
- Track 14-4Predictive Studies
- Track 14-5Phenomenology
- Track 14-6Grounded Theory
- Track 14-7Ethnography
- Track 14-8Embedded Design
- Track 14-9Iterative Design
Psychiatric psychological state nursing may be a specialty at intervals nursing. Psychiatric psychological state registered nurses work with people, families, groups, and communities, assessing their psychological state desires. The PMH nurse develops a nursing designation and set up of care, implements the nursing method, and evaluates it for effectiveness. Psychiatric psychological state Advanced apply Registered Nurses (PMH-APRNs) provide medical care services to the psychiatric-mental health population. PMH-APRNs assess, diagnose, and treat people and families with psychiatrically disorders or the potential for such disorders exploitation their full scope of therapeutic skills, together with the prescription of medication and administration of psychotherapy. PMH-APRNs often own private practices and corporations as well as consult with groups, communities, legislators, and corporations.
Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing session addresses current & future trends at the interface of Psychiatry and Nursing. It emphasizes on the use of various treatment methods for Psychiatric and Mental disorders. Psychiatric Nursing is combination of both Psychiatry & Nursing which focuses on disorders related to mental disorders, in which many cases were revealed to be originated from a recognizable malfunction in the brain. The trained psychiatrist’s works along with additional neuroscience clinicians to deliver complete care to the patients. On the other hand Nurses are responsible for assessing patient, giving medicines and treatments and also develops and manage nursing care plans. The global nurse call equipment system market size was valued at USD 870 million in 2017 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 13.7% over the forecast period. North America followed by Europe is dominating the global nursing care market due to high healthcare expenditures. The U.S. is dominating the North American nursing care market due to increasing prevalence of diseases. Asia is expected to show high growth rate in the next five years.
- Track 15-1Maternal Healthcare
- Track 15-2Recovery & Rehabilitation
- Track 15-3Addiction Nursing
- Track 15-4Geriatric Nursing
- Track 15-5Pediatric Nursing
- Track 15-6Psychological Therapies
- Track 15-7Women Mental Health
- Track 15-8Clinical Psychology
- Track 15-9Nursing Education
- Track 15-10Psychiatry & Mental Health Nursing
- Track 15-11Neurological Nursing
- Track 15-12Psychiatric Nurses
- Track 15-13Clinical Trials & Case Reports
Evidence-based nursing (EBN) is Associate in Nursing approach to creating quality choices and providing medical aid based mostly upon personal clinical experience together with the foremost current, relevant analysis obtainable on the subject. This approach is victimisation evidence-based follow (EBP) as a foundation.
Nursing Research and Evidence Based Practice session offers a cutting-edge program of renowned international speakers, specialist concurrent sessions, a short paper and poster presentations attracting over 450 experts in the conference providing an opportunity for nurses to learn the mechanics of the research process and the evidence-based practice through interactions with experienced nurse researchers and practitioners. We encourage nurses from clinical practice, academic and administrative settings, and nursing students to use this forum to learn more about the wonderful research activities and to stimulate further interest in future research. In addition to cutting-edge presentations and debates, this year agenda provides you an opportunity to participate in or organize a workshop.
- Track 16-1Gerontological Nursing
- Track 16-2Evidence-Based Medicine
- Track 16-3Evidence-based Clinical Practices
- Track 16-4Emergency Nursing
- Track 16-5Dental Nursing
- Track 16-6Critical Care Nursing
- Track 16-7Clinical Nursing Research
- Track 16-8Clinical Nurse Specialist
- Track 16-9Adult Health Nursing
- Track 16-10Accelerated Nurse Program
- Track 16-11Travel Nursing
- Track 16-12Registered Nurse
- Track 16-13Pediatric Nursing
- Track 16-14Nursing Practice
- Track 16-15Mental Health Nursing
- Track 16-16Licensed Practical Nurse
- Track 16-17Evidence-Based Nursing
Clinical Nurse Specialists are registered nurses, who have graduate level nursing preparation at the master's or scholar level as a central nervous system. They are clinical experts in evidence-based nursing practice within a specialty area, treating and managing the health concerns of patients and populations.
The extent of Clinical Nursing and Practice envelops clinical practice, training, counsel, research, and organization. Nursing is centered on the care of people, families, gatherings, and groups in danger for or with an analysis of illnesses. The Nursing Society keeps up that medical attendants engaged with quiet care have the obligation to create and show information and abilities that show capability in the field. Attendants they assume a vital part in the organization of Nursing specialists and are in charge of safe medication taking care of; assessment of lab information; figuring of medication measurements on the premise of body surface territory; addition of intravenous lines or getting to focal venous gadgets; persistent and time escalated checking to address potential antagonistic responses or medication collaborations and screening patients for incorporation in accessible research trials or conventions. In the Clinical Nursing and Practice field the medical caretakers need a comprehension of Nursing Care and Health Care. They are additionally in charge of broad side effect administration, persistent training and the accommodation procedure for clinical trials or research conventions
- Track 17-1Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing
- Track 17-2Clinical Service Management
- Track 17-3Midwifery and Child Care Nursing
- Track 17-4Midwifery and Child Care Nursing
- Track 17-5Nursing Management
- Track 17-6Clinical Nursing Specialist
- Track 17-7Surgical Nursing
- Track 17-8Advanced Nursing Practice
- Track 17-9Cardiac Nursing
- Track 17-10Pre-Clinical Research
- Track 17-11Nursing Education
- Track 17-12Clinical Simulation in Nursing
- Track 17-13Clinical Nursing
- Track 17-14Advanced Nursing Equipment
- Track 17-15Advanced Nursing Equipment
- Track 17-16Emergency Nursing
- Track 17-17Legal Nursing
- Track 17-18Legal Nursing
- Track 17-19Nursing Practice
- Track 17-20Nursing Research
A Paediatric nurse could be a (Registered Nurse) RN or an advanced practice nurse who has received specialised coaching with medicine patients. Paediatric nurses dedicate their career to operating with kids of all ages, from infancy through the teenager years.
Pediatric Nursing session will focus on educational research directed toward Pediatrics and its impact on Pediatrics clinical outcomes, through oral and poster presentations, educational workshop sessions, and influential plenary presentations. Attendees will be provided with the tools to enhance Pediatrics education & Practice programs to make Pediatrics education more effective in Pediatric Nursing.
Pediatric Nursing is a platform for clinical trial for Pediatric associates, Pediatric nursing practitioner, pediatric healthcare professionals, pediatric nursing students as well as pediatric faculty, pediatric deans, pediatric researchers, and pediatric leaders to collaborate on topics affecting Pediatrics, pediatric nursing and healthcare.
- Track 18-1Neonatal Nursing
- Track 18-2Child & Adolescent Obesity
- Track 18-3Child Abuse & Prevention
- Track 18-4Bioethics in Child Health, Rights & Safety
- Track 18-5Preterm-Birth Complications & Intensive Care
- Track 18-6Pediatric Surgery
- Track 18-7Pediatric Vaccines & Immunization
- Track 18-8Pediatric Dermatology
- Track 18-9Pediatric Dentistry
- Track 18-10Pediatric Ophthalmology
- Track 18-11Pediatric Rheumatology
- Track 18-12Pediatric Genetic Disorders & Rare Diseases
- Track 18-13Pediatric Rehabilitation
- Track 18-14Pediatric Diagnostic Techniques & Therapeutics
- Track 18-15Pediatrics Forensic Pathology
- Track 18-16Pediatric Specialists Meetings
- Track 18-17Pediatrics Critical Care & Emergency Medicine
- Track 18-18Adolescent Medicine
- Track 18-19Pediatrics Pharmacology
- Track 18-20Paediatric Oncology Nursing
- Track 18-21Child Neurology Nurses
- Track 18-22Infant Nursing
- Track 18-23Pediatrics Healthcare
- Track 18-24General & Clinical Pediatrics
- Track 18-25Neonatology & Perinatology
- Track 18-26Pediatric Cardiology
- Track 18-27Pediatric Oncology & Radiology
- Track 18-28Pediatric Neurology & Psychological Disorders
- Track 18-29Pediatrics Nephrology and Urology
- Track 18-30Pediatric Gastroenterology & Hepatology
- Track 18-31Pediatric Endocrinology & Diabetes
- Track 18-32Pediatric Nutrition & Breast Feeding
- Track 18-33Pediatric Pulmonology & Respiratory Disorders
- Track 18-34Pediatric Immunology, Allergy & Infectious Diseases
- Track 18-35Pediatric Hospice & Palliative Care
Cardiac Nursing and Cardiology session welcome all the Directors, Cardiologists, Cardiac Surgeons, Cardiovascular Surgeon, Thoracic Surgeon, Cardiac Nurses, Heart Failure Nurse, Cardiovascular Technologists, Clinical Cardiac Perfusionist, Cardiology Associations and Societies, Business Professionals, Medical colleges and universities, Professors, Manufacturing Medical Devices Companies , Students to make your presence felt at the conference. Cardiology session provides insight into key concepts on recent advances in Cardiac Nursing and Cardiology. Our Congress deliver new ideas, convictions, strategies and tactics that directly affect how you do business. No other Congresses will offer impressive roaster of Keynote speakers, quality attendees, and compelling content. Cardiac Nursing will provide every attendee with great opportunities to publish research, share the knowledge and enrich your professional network.
Most Cardiovascular Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNSs) work in hospitals. They take care of critically sick patients, additionally as that convalescent from cardiac procedures like bypass, operation, or pacemaker surgery. Cardiovascular nurses may facilitate patients recover reception.
- Track 19-1Heart Failure Nurses
- Track 19-2Cardiac Surgery
- Track 19-3Heart Devices
- Track 19-4Consultants Cardiology
- Track 19-5Cardiac Pharmacology
- Track 19-6Cardiomyopathy
- Track 19-7Cardiology-Future Medicine
- Track 19-8Case Reports on Cardiology
- Track 19-9Current Research on Cardiology
- Track 19-10Hypertension
- Track 19-11Pediatric/Geriatric/Sport Cardiology
- Track 19-12Cardio-Oncology
- Track 19-13Cardiac Nursing/ Cardiovascular Nursing
- Track 19-14Cardiology
- Track 19-15Critical care nursing
- Track 19-16Critical care nursing
- Track 19-17Heart disease in Woman
- Track 19-18Diabetes, Obesity, Stroke
- Track 19-19Diabetes, Obesity, Stroke
- Track 19-20Cardiac Amyloidosis
- Track 19-21Heart failure and its Regeneration
Ambulatory care nursing is that the Nursing Care of patients who receives treatment on associate patient basis, i.e. they do not need admission to a hospital for associate long keep. Ambulatory care includes those clinical, structure and skilled activities engaged in by registered nurses with and for people, groups, and populations who look for help with up health and/or look for care for health-related problems.
Emergency and Ambulatory Care Nursing treat patients in emergency situations where they’re experiencing trauma or injury. These nurses quickly recognize life-threatening problems and are trained to help solve them on the spot. They can work in hospital emergency rooms, ambulances, helicopters, urgent care centers, sports arenas, and more. Critical Care Nurses make sure all critically ill patients get optimal care for their illnesses and injuries. To do that, they use their specialized skills as well as their in-depth knowledge of the human body and the latest technology in the field. Most Critical Care Nurses work in hospitals, but they can work out of nursing homes, outpatient facilities and flight units, too.
- Track 20-1Ambulatory care nursing
- Track 20-2Management of acute illness
- Track 20-3Practice acts
- Track 20-4Regulatory standards
- Track 20-5The standards of professional ambulatory care nursing
- Track 20-6Ambulatory care nursing practice
- Track 20-7Critical reasoning and astute clinical judgment
- Track 20-8Nurse/patient encounters
- Track 20-9Face-to-face encounters
- Track 20-10Telecommunication strategies
- Track 20-11Clinical, organizational and professional activities
- Track 20-12Evidence based information
- Track 20-13Hospital-based clinics
- Track 20-14Patient homes
- Track 20-15Ambulatory care
- Track 20-16Outpatient care
- Track 20-17Room visits
- Track 20-18Hospital visits and readmissions
- Track 20-19Management
- Track 20-20Quality and safety problems
- Track 20-21Medical technology and procedures
- Track 20-22Long term relationships
The follow focuses on promotion and restoration of health, bar of sickness and injury, and protection from work-related and environmental hazards. Activity health nurses work with employers and staff to spot health and safety wants within the work.
Occupational Health Nurses session we look forward to meeting with friends and customers in nursing and answering their questions about respiratory protection programs and quantitative respirator fit testing. Visit us at the conference!
Prospective authors are kindly encouraged to contribute to and help shape the conference through submissions of their research abstracts, papers and e-posters. Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Occupational Health Nursing and Healthcare are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. The conference solicits contributions of abstracts, papers and e-posters that address themes and topics of the conference, including figures, tables and references of novel research materials.
- Track 21-1Health surveillance
- Track 21-2Managing complex cases
- Track 21-3Occupational health – legal issues
A geriatric nurse is a specialist who can facilitate old patients live through illness or injury by providing sensible care and developing patient care plans. They may additionally facilitate with rehabilitation and conduct check-ups in skilful care facilities or hospice facilities.
Growing geriatric population intending to live independently is one of the major drivers of the geriatric care services market. The global geriatric care services market is expected to reach to USD 1,012.02 billion by 2022, growing at a CAGR of 6.1% over the forecast period. Constantly increasing geriatric population prone to chronic medical conditions is expected to drive market growth over the forecast period.
- Track 22-1Geriatric & Elderly care
- Track 22-2Geriatric nursing
- Track 22-3Geriatric Psychiatry
- Track 22-4Aging and Cognitive Disorders
- Track 22-5Palliative Medications
- Track 22-6Hospice Care
- Track 22-7Palliative Care and Management
- Track 22-8Elder Abuse
- Track 22-9Geriatric Care Management
- Track 22-10Aging Biology
A Perianesthesia nurse could be a nursing skilled that cares for and monitors patients that are starting up of physiological state and sedation. Some of the side effects that patients may experience as they are coming out of anaesthesia include nausea and disorientation. In some rare cases, patients may also experience issues with respiration or other adverse reactions.
The session aims to share innovative education and management approaches, and new research and evidence-based practices to empower exemplary care for the perianaesthesia patient. The scientific programme will focus on using evidence, education and best clinical team practices to improve the quality of patient care before, during and following anaesthesia administration.
All relevant perianaesthesia practice abstracts were considered for oral and poster presentation.
- Track 23-1Surgeons
- Track 23-2Nurse Anaesthetists
- Track 23-3Surgeons Assistants
- Track 23-4Surgical Technologists
- Track 23-5Nurse Practitioners
- Track 23-6Surgical Procedure
Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery is that the 1st internationally refereed journal printed to fulfill the particular desires of the nursing profession within the integration of complementary therapies from aromatherapy and massage to acupuncture and herbal medicine into conventional patient care practices.
Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery should be assessed with the same long and careful research process used to assess standard medicines. Standard cancer medicines have for the most part been studied for safety and effectiveness through an intense scientific process that incorporates clinical trials with large number of patients.
The specific needs of the nursing profession in the integration of complementary therapies from aromatherapy and massage to acupuncture and herbal medicine into conventional patient care practices. Join with us at Complementary Therapies in Nursing & Midwifery invite participants to submit abstracts/research papers on all aspects of individual therapies, original research, educational issues, complementary therapies in nursing practice, problem management, best practice reports, information on a therapy, international news, book, product and equipment reviews and correspondence.
- Track 24-1Preoperative Care of Patient with Cancer
- Track 24-2Surgical Care of Breast Cancer
- Track 24-3Robotics in Oncological Surgery
- Track 24-4Reconstructive Surgery
- Track 24-5Survivorship Issues in Surgical Oncology Nursing
- Track 24-6Nutritional Methods
- Track 24-7Alternative Medical Systems
Nephrology nurses use the nursing process to care for patients of all ages who are experiencing, or are at risk for, kidney disease. Nephrology nursing involves both preventing disease and assessing the health needs of patients and families.
Nephrology nursing involves both preventing disease and assessing the health needs of patients and families. Care spans the life cycle and involves patients who are experiencing the real or threatened impact of acute or chronic kidney disease; therefore nephrology nurses must be well-educated, highly skilled, and motivated. These nurses also deal with every organ system in the body, calling for a holistic approach to patient care that is both challenging and rewarding.
Driven by technological and educational advances, nephrology nursing continues to be a dynamic field with a wide variety of career opportunities for nurses at all levels.
Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, Orthopaedic nursing focuses on the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders and associated traumatic conditions. Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing provides practitioners working in orthopaedic and musculoskeletal trauma settings with the essential evidence, guidance and knowledge required to underpin effective practice.
Trauma is a psychological response such as shock, stress and denial to abhorrent events for example an accident, rape or natural disaster. Trauma, orthopaedic trauma, hard and soft tissue trauma, psychological trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic Injury, burn trauma, sexual trauma, trauma therapy, trauma resuscitation, trauma in pregnancy, age related bone disorders, arthritis, trauma Counselling, Fracture, Dental Injury, sports Trauma, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, joint replacement, foot and ankle surgery, hip replacement, knee replacement, bone cancer, including injuries to bone, muscle, ligament, and tendons and other areas justifying the title of the session.
A vascular nurse specialises in treating patients who suffer from a variety of diseases including carotid artery disease, abdominal aneurysms, leaky leg veins and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who suffer from these problems are usually elderly and their symptoms are typically complicated by a number of different chronic problems. This field of nursing is rapidly gaining in popularity and for good reason too. Take a look at why a growing number of nurses are considering a career in vascular nursing and why you should too.
A surgical nurse is a nursing professional that is trained to be able to assist during both routine and difficult surgical procedures. These types of nurses can be found around operating tables all across the word, assisting surgeons with both elective and life-saving procedures.
A radiology nurse, also referred to as a medical imaging nurse, is a nursing professional that cares for patients that must undergo diagnostic imaging procedures and radiation therapy. Common diagnostic imaging tests include x-rays, computed tomography scans (CT scans), magnetic resonance imaging scans (MRIs), and ultrasounds. Through the use of these imaging tests, medical professionals are able to see inside a patient's body, enabling them to easily diagnose illnesses and suspected injuries. Radiation therapy is also commonly used to treat certain illnesses, such as cancer. In order to provide proper care, radiology nurses not only focus on patient comfort, but ensure that accurate images are being taken to help diagnose these injuries and illnesses.
The session of Radiology Nursing promotes the highest quality patient care in the diagnostic and therapeutic imaging environments. The content is intended to show radiology nurses how to practice with compassion, competence, and commitment, not only to patients but also to the profession of nursing as a whole. The journal's goals mirror those of the Association for Radiologic & Imaging Nursing: to provide, promote, maintain, and continuously improve patient care through education, standards, professional growth, and collaboration with other health care providers.
A Gastrointestinal and Endoscopy Nursing works within the endoscopy unit of a hospital or other medical institution in which procedures including an endoscope are used. These miniature cameras are used to view problems within the body, usually originating in the genitourinary system or the digestive system. A nurse’s responsibility within this unit usually falls under the roles associated with sedation and post-procedure care. Working within different medical centers will give endoscopy nurses different responsibilities and roles to play within a procedure as some doctors give more independence to nurses within this profession, while others prefer to do much of the work themselves. Nurses who work in this position are also referred to as gastroenterology nurses due to the area of focus during procedures.
Victims of violence and abuse require care from a health professional who is trained to treat the trauma associated with the wrong that has been done to them—be it sexual assault, intimate partner violence, neglect, or other forms of intentional injury. Forensic nurses are also a critical resource for anti-violence efforts. They collect evidence and give testimony that can be used in a court of law to apprehend or prosecute perpetrators who commit violent and abusive acts.
A forensic nurse is a Registered or Advanced Practice nurse who has received specific education and training. Forensic nurses provide specialized care for patients who are experiencing acute and long-term health consequences associated with victimization or violence, and/or have unmet evidentiary needs relative to having been victimized or accused of victimization. In addition, forensic nurses provide consultation and testimony for civil and criminal proceedings relative to nursing practice, care given, and opinions rendered regarding findings. Forensic nursing care is not separate and distinct from other forms of medical care, but rather integrated into the overall care needs of individual patients.
Forensic nurses work in a variety of fields, including sexual assault (as Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners or SANEs), domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, elder mistreatment, death investigation, corrections, and in the aftermath of mass disasters.
Transcultural nursing is a distinct nursing specialty which focuses on global cultures and comparative cultural caring, health, and nursing phenomena. The transcultural nurse looks to respond to the imperative for developing a global perspective within the nursing field in an increasingly globalized world of interdependent and interconnected nations and individuals. The primary aim of this specialty is to provide culturally congruent nursing care. To be an effective transcultural nurse, you should possess the ability to recognize and appreciate cultural differences in healthcare values, beliefs, and customs. Transcultural nurses shouldn't only be familiar with the religious customs, values, and beliefs of patients, but also how someone's way of life, their modes of thought, and their unique customs can immensely affect them in how they deal with illness, healing, disease, and deaths.
Endocrinology is the subspecialty of internal medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and care of disorders of the endocrine (glandular) system and the associated metabolic dysfunction. Endocrinologists are frequently involved with the diagnosis and management of
- Hypothalamic disorders (abnormal sodium and water balance)
- Pituitary diseases (tumors, over- or under-production of pituitary hormones)
- Parathyroid abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia)
- Thyroid diseases (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, nodules)
- Adrenal cortex dysfunction (mineralcorticoid, glucocorticoid, sex hormone abnormalities)
- Gonadal disease (hypogonadism and reproductive disorders)
- Pancreatic endocrine disease (diabetes mellitus)
- Bone metabolism (osteoporosis)
- Lipid metabolism
- Iatrogenic effect of glucocorticoids
Endocrinologists may practice in a dedicated endocrine practice, as part of a multi-specialty group, or may maintain a split practice seeing both endocrinology and general internal medicine patients. They may also provide consultation for other physicians or hospitals. Academic endocrinologists often participate in basic science or clinical research and teach medical students and resident trainees.
Scientific works of considerable significance and impact in all fields of Diabetes research such as: Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes, and Monogenic Diabetes, and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), Diabetic Neuropathy, Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetic Nephropathy, Diabetic hypoglycemia, and Obesity. The scope of the journal is not just restricted to Diabetes alone; works related to endocrinology, genetics, physiology, or cardio-vascular diseases which are loosely associated with Diabetes are equally welcome. It is a boon for researchers and students who wish to be kept abreast of the latest advancements in the field of Diabetes, it would help them build on the current know-how. Business people, policy makers, journalists, and practitioners can also benefit from this session.
A respiratory nurse, also called a pulmonary care nurse, is a nursing professional that plays an instrumental role in the treatment of patients who are suffering from respiratory problems. As problems in the respiratory system can result in several complications, some of which can be fatal, proper treatment is essential. A respiratory nurse will often care for patients that suffer from both acute and chronic respiratory illnesses. Such illnesses include asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, and lung cancer.
Although much of the care that respiratory patients receive at a primary, secondary and tertiary level is provided by nonspecialised nurses, patients in many European countries are seen and managed by respiratory nurse specialists. Respiratory nurses are engaged in the holistic care of patients with lung diseases, with the aim of maintaining the highest nursing standards, while working in collaboration with other members of a healthcare team. Specialist nurses work in various settings (inpatient and outpatient hospital departments and patients’ homes) and, in addition to providing patient care, they are often involved in preventive programmes (e.g. smoking cessation and patient education)
An otorhinolaryngology nurse - also known as an ear, nose and throat nurse - cares for patients with diseases or injuries of the ear, nose, throat, head or neck. Often referred to as ENT nurses, otorhinolaryngology nurses assist in the treatment of both acute and chronic conditions, including ear infections and allergies, laryngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, sleep apnea and injuries such as broken bones. ENT nurses treat all ages of patients, from infants to the elderly, with a sizable pediatric patient population.
Treat patients with a wide range of conditions, from allergies, sleep apnea and sinusitis to ear infections, laryngitis, tonsillitis, and broken bones of the nose.
Clinical education at the Eye and Ear encompasses both undergraduate and postgraduate education in the areas of ophthalmology, ENT, general practice, emergency medicine, optometry, orthoptics and audiology.
The dental nurse plays an important role in the organisation and management of the dental practice, assists the dentist in all aspects of patient treatment and plays a vital role in patient care. The main duties of a dental nurse include infection prevention and control, chair-side assistance, preparation and maintenance of the dental surgery and patient care.
This session gives you the skills and practical competence needed to work in a dental surgery. You will learn about the day-to-day running of a dental practice and acquire the qualifications for entry to the Dental Council Voluntary Register of Dental Nurses.
You can find variety of working environments, including dental hospitals and Health Service Executive dental clinics, as well as in general and specialist dental practices. Depending on the work setting, advancement in the field may include senior dental nurse, clinic nurse manager, practice manager, marketing representatives for relevant companies, dental nurse tutor, course co-ordinator, , and the area of health promotion.
Dermatology nurses work specifically in the treatment and care of patients with diseases, wounds, injuries, and other skin conditions.
Dermatology nurses have the ability to work in a wide range of settings, including, but not limited to, private practice offices, hospitals, infusion centers, clinics, plastic surgeons’ offices, and burn centers.
Duties for dermatology nurses vary depending on setting; however, specific roles and responsibilities include:
- Assist in the performance of skin exams for skin cancer and other conditions
- Monitor and record a patient’s medical history and test results
- Provide pre- and post-operative care for patients undergoing treatment
- Perform and assist with cosmetic dermatology procedures
- Assess, monitor and treat skin wounds, including burns and ulcers
- Educate patients on how to protect their skin
Dermatology nurses can also find work in day spas or cosmetic dermatology offices as this is currently on the rise. These nurses will assist performing procedures such as laser treatments, tattoo removal, chemical peels, and other various treatments.